Uller Uprising by H. Beam Piper is a science fiction novel based on the Sepoy Mutiny in colonial India. A trading company like the East India Trading Company of the 18th century has been established on Uller?. Local officials rule and the humans profit and also try to help better the lives of the locals. Not all of the natives are pleased with this arrangement and a rebellion begins. It is up to Captain Carlos and his men to save the Chartered Company and the Terran Federation.
So the Ulleran challenge begins, with the rantings of a prophet and a seemingly incidental street riot. Only when a dose of poison lands in the governor-general's whiskey does it become clear that the "geeks" have had it up to their double-lidded eyeballs with the imperialist Terran Federation's Chartered Uller Company. Then, overnight, war is everywhere.
How it will end is in the (merely) two Terran hands of the new governor-general, a man shrewd enough to know that "it is easier to banish a habit of thought than a piece of knowledge." The problem is, the particular piece of knowledge he needs hasn't been used in 450 years. . . .